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Nutrition

Nutrition is a topic covered in the Taber's Medical Dictionary.

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Explanation of Dietary Reference Values

AI, Adequate Intake The amount of a specific nutrient needed to achieve a specific indication, e.g., to maintain bone mass.
DRI, Dietary Reference Intake A nutrient recommendation index based on the parameters specified in the Average Intake, Estimated Average Requirement, Recommended Dietary Allowance and Upper Intake values.
DRV, Daily Reference Value Standards for nutrient intake set for both macronutrient and micronutrient dietary components that lack a Recommended Dietary Allowance. The Dietary Reference Value for some nutrients represents their Upper Limit.
DV, Daily Value A dietary reference term that encompasses the Dietary Reference Value and Reference Daily Intake. It is used to calculate the labeled percent of each nutrient that a serving of the product provides.
EAR, Estimated Average Requirement The estimated intake of a nutrient that meets the nutritional needs of 50% of the individuals within a given age-gender cohort.
ESADDI, Estimated Safe and Adequate Daily Intake The amount of a nutrient calculated to meet the needs of half of the individuals in that age group.
RDA, Recommended Dietary Allowance The amount of a specific dietary component, as established by the National Academy of Sciences, required to meet the needs of 97% of the individuals in a given age-gender cohort. RDA=EAR+2SDEAR
RDI, Reference Daily Intake The nutrient intake standard established by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration as a food label reference for macronutrients and micronutrients.
RNI, Recommended Nutrient Intake The Canadian nutrient intake standard.
US RDA, U.S. Recommended Daily Allowance A nutritional standard formerly promulgated by the FDA and now replaced by the Recommended Dietary Allowance.
UL, Tolerable Upper Intake Level The highest intake per day that is likely to produce no adverse health risks.

Recommended Daily Dietary Allowances a (Revised 2004)

CategoryAge (yr) or ConditionWeight b b Height b Protein (g)Vitamin A (μg RE ) c Vitamin E (mg α-TE ) e Vitamin K (μg)Vitamin C (mg)Iron (mg)Zinc (mg)Iodine (μg)Selenium (μg)
(kg)(lb)(cm)(in.)
Infants0.0-0.561360249.140042.0400.27211015
0.5-1.0920712813.550052.55011313020
Children1-3132990351330063015739020
4-820441124419400735251059030
Male9-13459915762346001160458812040
14-18661451766952900157575111115050
19-30721601777056900151209081115055
31-50791741767056900151209081115055
51 + 771701736856900151209081115055
Female9-134610115762346001160458812040
14-1855120163644670015756515915055
19-3058128164654670015907518815055
31-5063138163644670015907518815055
51 + 6514316063467001590758815055
Pregnant 6071770159085271122060
Lactating19-30 7171130019120120912290 70
31-50 7171130019120120912290 70
a The allowances, expressed as average daily intakes over time, are intended to provide for individual variations among most normal persons living in the United States under usual environmental stresses. Diets should be based on a variety of common foods in order to provide other nutrients for which human requirements have been less well defined.
b Weights and heights of reference adults are actual medians for the U.S. population of the designated age, as reported by NHANES II [second National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey]. The median weights and heights of those under 19 years of age were taken from Hamill et al. [Physical Growth: National Center for Health Statistics percentiles. Am J Clin Nutr 32:607, 1979]. The use of these figures does not imply that the height-to-weight ratios are ideal.
c Retinol equivalents. 1 re = 1 μg retinol or 6 μg beta-carotene.
e Alpha-tocopherol equivalents. 1 mg d-alpha tocopherol = 1 alpha- te .

SOURCE: From National Research Council. Dietary Reference Intakes: Applications in Dietary Assessment, Copyright 2000 and Dietary Reference Intakes: Applications in Dietary Planning, Copyright 2003 by the National Academy of Sciences. Revised 2004. Courtesy of the National Academy Press Washington, DC. www.nap.edu

Dietary Reference Intakes: Recommended Intakes for Individuals

Life Stage GroupCalcium (mg/day)Phosphorus (mg/day)Magnesium (mg/day)Vitamin D (µm/day) a b Fluoride (mg/day)Thiamine (mg/day)Riboflavin (mg/day)Niacin (mg/day) c Vitamin B 6 (mg/day)Folate (µg/day) d Vitamin B 12 (µg/day)Pantothenic Acid (mg/day)Biotin (µg/day)Choline (mg/day) e
Infants
0-6 months 210*100*30*5*0.01*0.2*0.3*20.1*65*0.4*1.75125
7-12 months270*275*75*5*0.5*0.3*0.4*40.3*80*0.5*1.86150
Children
1-3 years500* 460 80 5*0.7* 0.5 0.5 6 0.5 150 0.9 28200
4-8 years800* 500 130 5*1* 0.6 0.6 8 0.6 200 1.2 312250
Males
9-13 years1,300* 1,250 240 5*2* 0.9 0.9 12 1.0 300 1.8 420375
14-18 years1,300* 1,250 410 5*3* 1.2 1.3 16 1.3 400 2.4 525550
19-30 years1,000* 700 400 5*4* 1.2 1.3 16 1.3 400 2.4 530550
31-50 years1,000* 700 420 5*4* 1.2 1.3 16 1.3 400 2.4 530550
51-70 years1,200* 700 420 10*4* 1.2 1.3 16 1.7 400 2.4 f 530550
>70 years1,200* 700 420 15*4* 1.2 1.3 16 1.7 400 2.4 f 530550
Females
9-13 years1,300* 1,250 240 5*2* 0.9 0.9 12 1.0 300 1.8 420375
14-18 years1,300* 1,250 360 5*3* 1.0 1.0 14 1.2 400 g 2.4 525400
19-30 years1,000* 700 310 5*3* 1.1 1.1 14 1.3 400 g 2.4 530425
31-50 years1,000* 700 320 5*3* 1.1 1.1 14 1.3 400 g 2.4 530425
51-70 years1,200* 700 320 10*3* 1.1 1.1 14 1.5 400 2.4 f 530425
>70 years1,200* 700 320 15*3* 1.1 1.1 14 1.5 400 2.4 f 530425
Pregnancy
≤18 years1,300* 1,250 400 5*3* 1.4 1.4 18 1.9 600 h 2.6 630450
19-30 years1,000* 700 350 5*3* 1.4 1.4 18 1.9 600 h 2.6 630450
31-50 years1,000* 700 360 5*3* 1.4 1.4 18 1.9 600 h 2.6 630450
Lactation
≤18 years1,300* 700 360 5*3* 1.4 1.6 17 2.0 500 2.8 735550
19-30 years1,000* 700 310 5*3* 1.4 1.6 17 2.0 500 2.8 735550
31-50 years1,000* 700 320 5*3* 1.4 1.6 17 2.0 500 2.8 735550
a As cholecalciferol. 1 µg cholecalciferol = 40 IU vitamin D.
b In the absence of adequate exposure to sunlight.
c As niacin equivalents (NE). 1 mg of niacin = 60 mg of tryptophan; 0-6 months = preformed niacin (not NE).
d As dietary folate equivalents (DFE). 1 DFE = 1 µg food folate = 0.6 µg of folic acid from fortified food or as a supplement consumed with food = 0.5 µg of a supplement taken on an empty stomach.
e Although AIs have been set for choline, there are few data to assess whether a dietary supply of choline is needed at all stages of the life cycle, and it may be that the choline requirement can be met by endogenous synthesis at some of these stages.
f Because 10 to 30% of older people may malabsorb food-bound B12, it is advisable for those older than 50 years to meet their RDA mainly by consuming foods fortified with B 12 or a supplement containing B12 .
g In view of evidence linking folate intake with neural tube defects in the fetus, it is recommended that all women capable of becoming pregnant consume 400 µg from supplements or fortified foods in addition to intake of food folate from a varied diet.
h It is assumed that women will continue consuming 400 µg from supplements or fortified food until their pregnancy is confirmed and they enter prenatal care, which ordinarily occurs after the end of the periconceptional period—the critical time for formation of the neural tube.

Note: This table presents Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) in bold type and Adequate Intakes (AIs) in ordinary type followed by an asterisk (*). RDAs and AIs may both be used as goals for individual intake. RDAs are set to meet the needs of almost all (97 to 98%) individuals in a group. For healthy breastfed infants, the AI is the mean intake. The AI for other life-stage and gender groups is believed to cover needs of all individuals in the group.

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Citation

Venes, Donald, editor. "Nutrition." Taber's Medical Dictionary, 23rd ed., F.A. Davis Company, 2017. Taber's Online, www.tabers.com/tabersonline/view/Tabers-Dictionary/771302/all/Nutrition.
Nutrition. In: Venes D, ed. Taber's Medical Dictionary. 23rd ed. F.A. Davis Company; 2017. https://www.tabers.com/tabersonline/view/Tabers-Dictionary/771302/all/Nutrition. Accessed June 18, 2019.
Nutrition. (2017). In Venes, D. (Ed.), Taber's Medical Dictionary. Available from https://www.tabers.com/tabersonline/view/Tabers-Dictionary/771302/all/Nutrition
Nutrition [Internet]. In: Venes D, editors. Taber's Medical Dictionary. F.A. Davis Company; 2017. [cited 2019 June 18]. Available from: https://www.tabers.com/tabersonline/view/Tabers-Dictionary/771302/all/Nutrition.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
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