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hemorrhage

hemorrhage is a topic covered in the Taber's Medical Dictionary.

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(hem′(ŏ-)răj )

[hem- + -rrhage]
Loss of blood. The term is usually used for episodes of bleeding that last more than a few minutes, compromise organ or tissue perfusion, or threaten life. The most hazardous forms of blood loss result from arterial bleeding, internal bleeding, or bleeding into the cranium. The risk of uncontrolled bleeding is greatest in people who have suffered major trauma, or in those who take anticoagulant drugs or who have other coagulation defects.
hemorrhagic (hem-ŏ-raj′ĭk ), adj. SEE TABLE: Common Sites of Bleeding

SYMPTOMS AND SIGNS
Orthostatic dizziness, weakness, fatigue, shortness of breath, and palpitations are common symptoms of hemorrhage. Signs of hemorrhage include tachycardia, hypotension, pallor, and cold, moist skin.

TREATMENT
Pressure should be applied directly to any obviously bleeding body part, and the part should be elevated. Cautery may be used to stop bleeding from visible vessels. Ligation of blood vessels, surgical removal of hemorrhaging organs, or the instillation of sclerosants are often effective in managing internal hemorrhage. Procoagulants (such as vitamin K, fresh frozen plasma, cryoprecipitate, desmopressin acetate) may be administered to patients with primary or drug-induced bleeding disorders. Transfusions of red blood cells may be given if bleeding compromises heart or lung function or threatens to do so because of its pace or volume.

For trauma patients with massive bleeding, the experienced nurse or emergency care provider may apply pneumatic splints or antishock garments during patient transportation to the hospital. These devices may prevent hemorrhagic shock.

Standard precautions should be used for all procedures involving contact with blood or wounds.


Common Sites of Bleeding

LocationDescriptive Term
Biliary tractHemobilia
Fallopian tubesHemosalpinx
Lower GI tractHematochezia; melena
Upper GI tractHematemesis
JointsHemarthosis
Lungs/bronchi (coughed up)Hemoptysis
Nasal passagesEpistaxis
SkinEcchymosis
Urinary tractHematuria

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Citation

Venes, Donald, editor. "Hemorrhage." Taber's Medical Dictionary, 23rd ed., F.A. Davis Company, 2017. Taber's Online, www.tabers.com/tabersonline/view/Tabers-Dictionary/765242/all/hemorrhage.
Hemorrhage. In: Venes D, ed. Taber's Medical Dictionary. 23rd ed. F.A. Davis Company; 2017. https://www.tabers.com/tabersonline/view/Tabers-Dictionary/765242/all/hemorrhage. Accessed May 21, 2019.
Hemorrhage. (2017). In Venes, D. (Ed.), Taber's Medical Dictionary. Available from https://www.tabers.com/tabersonline/view/Tabers-Dictionary/765242/all/hemorrhage
Hemorrhage [Internet]. In: Venes D, editors. Taber's Medical Dictionary. F.A. Davis Company; 2017. [cited 2019 May 21]. Available from: https://www.tabers.com/tabersonline/view/Tabers-Dictionary/765242/all/hemorrhage.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - ELEC T1 - hemorrhage ID - 765242 ED - Venes,Donald, BT - Taber's Medical Dictionary UR - https://www.tabers.com/tabersonline/view/Tabers-Dictionary/765242/all/hemorrhage PB - F.A. Davis Company ET - 23 DB - Taber's Online DP - Unbound Medicine ER -