(ang′gĕl)

[L. *angulus*, corner, angle]

1. The figure or space outlined by the diverging of two lines from a common point or by the meeting of two planes.

2. A projecting or sharp corner.

## A angle

The orientation of the patella relative to the tibial tubercle. The angle is formed by the intersection of a line bisecting the long axis of the patella and a passed through the tibial tubercle to the apex of the inferior pole of the patella.

**A ANGLE**The A angle is the relationship between the long axis of the patella and the tibial tuberosity; the Q angle describes the relationship between the long axis of the femur, measured from the anterior superior ilac spine.

## acromial angle

The angle formed by the junction of the lateral and posterior borders of the acromion.

## acute angle

An angle less than 90°.

## alpha angle

The angle formed by intersection of the visual line with the optic axis.

## alveolar angle

The angle between the horizontal plane and a line drawn through the base of the nasal spine and the middle point of the alveolus of the upper jaw.

## anterior chamber angle

The angle between the cornea and iris at the periphery of the anterior chamber of the eye.

## biorbital angle

The angle formed by the meeting of the axes of the orbits.

## cardiophrenic angle

The medial inferior corner of the pleural cavity bordered by the heart and diaphragm.

## carrying angle

The angle in the sagittal plane made at the elbow by extending the long axis of the forearm and the upper arm. This obtuse angle is more pronounced in women than in men.

## caudal angle

In radiology, angulation of the central ray toward the patient's feet.

## cavity angle

The angle formed by two or more walls of a cavity preparation in restorative dentistry.

## cephalic angle

In radiology, angulation of the central ray toward the patient's head.

## cephalometric angle

The angle formed by intersecting anthropometric lines. It is used in studies of the skull and for the diagnosis of malocclusions of dental, skeletal, and dentoskeletal origin.

## cerebellopontine angle

The angle formed by the junction of the cerebellum and the pons.

SYN: *SEE: pontine angle*

## cervicofemoral angle

*SEE: angle of inclination*

## Cobb angle

*SEE: Cobb angle*

## angle of convergence

The angle between the visual axis and the median line when an object is looked at.

## costal angle

The meeting point of the lower border of the false ribs with the axis of the sternum.

## costophrenic angle

The lateral inferior corner of the pulmonary cavity bordered by the ribs and diaphragm.

## costovertebral angle

The angle formed on each side of the trunk by the junction of the last rib with the lumbar vertebrae.

## craniofacial angle

The angle formed by the basifacial and basicranial axes at the midpoint of the sphenoethmoidal suture.

## facial angle

The angle made by lines from the nasal spine and external auditory meatus meeting between the upper middle incisor teeth.

## flat angle

The angle between two lines that join at an angle of almost 180°.

## gamma angle

The angle between the line of vision and the optic axis.

## gonial angle

SEE: Angle of jaw.

## Hilgenreiner epiphyseal angle

## angle of incidence

The angle between a ray striking a surface and a line drawn perpendicular to the surface at the point of incidence.

## angle of inclinication (of the hip)

The angle between the femoral neck and the shaft of the femur. This angle is normally 35° in infancy; with maturation of the skeleton it increases to 45°.

SYN: *SEE: cervicofemoral angle*

## angle of jaw

The angle formed where the vertical back edge of the ramus of the mandible meets the horizontal edge along the bottom.

SYN: *SEE: gonial angle; SEE: angle of mandible*

## angle of mandible

SEE: Angle of jaw.

## metafacial angle

The angle between the base of the skull and the pterygoid process.

## obtuse angle

An angle greater than 90°.

## occipital angle

The angle formed at the opisthion by the intersection of lines from the basion and from the lower border of the orbit.

## ophryospinal angle

The angle formed at the anterior nasal spine by the intersection of lines drawn from the auricular point and the glabella.

## parietal angle

The angle formed by the meeting of a line drawn tangent to the maximum curve of the zygomatic arch and a line drawn tangent to the end of the maximum frontal diameter of the skull. If these lines are parallel, the angle is zero; if they diverge, a negative angle is formed.

## pontine angle

## prophy angle

In dentistry, a wheel containing pieces of wire. It is used for cleaning metal surfaces.

## pubic angle

The angle formed by the junction of the rami of the pubic bones.

## Q angle

The acute angle formed by a line from the anterior superior iliac spine of the pelvis through the center of the patella and a line from the tibial tubercle through the patella. The angle describes the tracking of the patella in the trochlear groove of the femur. In women, the Q angle should be less than 22° with the knee in extension and less than 9° with the knee in 90° of flexion. In men, the Q angle should be less than 18° with the knee in extension and less than 8° with the knee in 90° of flexion.*SEE: A angle for illus*

## angle of refraction

The angle formed by a refracted ray of light with a line perpendicular to the surface at the refraction point.

## right angle

An angle of 90°.

## sacrolumbar angle

The angle formed by articulation of the last lumbar vertebra and the sacrum.

## sacrovertebral angle

The angle formed by the base of the sacrum and the fifth lumbar vertebra.

## sphenoid angle

The angle formed at the top of the sella turcica by the intersection of lines drawn from the nasal point and the tip of the rostrum of the sphenoid.

## sternal angle

The angle formed by the junction of the manubrium and the body of the sternum.

## angle of Treitz

The sharp curve at the duodenojejunal junction.

## venous angle

The angle formed by the junction of the internal jugular and subclavian veins.

## visual angle

The angle between the line of sight and the extremities of the object seen.

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