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Alternative Therapies

Alternative Therapies for Anxiety

Therapy Best Evidence Probably Useful Least Evidence §
HerbalsValerian (150—300 mg t.i.d.; 1-3 ml of tincture t.i.d.); kava-kava (45-70 mg kavalactones t.i.d.); Saint John's Wort (300 mg t.i.d.).Chamomile; hops; oats (oat straw); passion flower; peppermint; skullcap.Aromatherapy.
Diet and Nutrition/LifestyleHigh potency multivitamin; exercise; eliminate caffeine, alcohol, tobacco, sugar.Flaxseed oil (1 T/day); magnesium (200-300 mg t.i.d.); niacinamide (500 mg q.i.d.); phosphatidyl choline (4 g t.i.d.).
Mind-Body InterventionsBiofeedback; cognitive-behavioral therapy; deep breathing; group therapy; hypnotherapy; meditation; relaxation response; spiritual healing.Dance; music; qi gong; tai chi; yoga.
Bioelectromagnetic TherapiesCraniostimulation; energy healing.Electrosleep.
Alternative Systems of CareAcupuncture; ayurveda. Homeopathic: gelsemium 30C t.i.d.-q.i.d.; argentum nitricum 6C t.i.d.-q.i.d.; ignatia amara 6C t.i.d.-q.i.d.
Hands-On Healing TechniquesMassage.Chiropractic.Craniosacral therapy.
Therapies with the highest degree of scientific support for efficacy and safety.
Therapies that are often helpful but that do not have the highest degree of supporting evidence for efficacy and safety.
§ Therapies that may be useful but that have limited scientific evidence for efficacy and safety.

NOTE: C denotes the number of times that a substance is diluted at a ratio of 1:100.


SOURCE: Sierpina, VS: Integrative Health Care: Complementary and Alternative Therapies for the Whole Person, F.A. Davis, Philadelphia, 2000.

Alternative Therapies for Arthritis

Therapy Best Evidence * Probably Useful Least Evidence
HerbalsBoswellia (150-400 mg t.i.d.); capsaicin (topically); ginger concentrate (500 mg t.i.d.).White willow (60-120 mg/day salicin; 1-2 ml t.i.d. tincture).Aromatherapy; devil's claw; horsetail; sea cucumber; yucca.
Diet and Nutrition/LifestyleWeight loss; exercise; vitamin C (500-1000 mg t.i.d.); vitamin E (400-800 IU/day).Vitamin B3 (niacinamide): (1-3 g/day), check liver enzymes; boron 6 mg/day; omega-3 fatty acids (fish oil) 3 g/day.Eliminate solanine from diet (found in nightshade plants: tomatoes, white potatoes, peppers [except black pepper], eggplant, tobacco); copper bracelet or supplement; d-phenylalanine; pantothenic acid; zinc.
Mind-Body InterventionsCognitive-behavioral therapy.Biofeedback; qi gong; relaxation; social support; tai chi; yoga.Guided imagery; meditation; music.
Pharmacological and Biological TreatmentsGlucosamine sulfate (500 mg t.i.d. or as single dose); S-adenosyl- l -methionine (SAMe) (400 mg t.i.d.).Chondroitin sulfate (400 mg t.i.d.).DMSO; chelation therapy; shark and bovine cartilage.
Bioelectromagnetic TherapiesStatic magnet therapy; pulsed electromagnetic fields; TENS.
Alternative Systems of CareAcupuncture; acupressure; ayurveda; traditional Chinese medicine.Homeopathy: Gout: nux vomica 6C; belladonna 6C; calcarea 6C; colchicum 6C.
Osteoarthritis: Rhus toxicodendron 6C t.i.d. for 2 weeks; ledum 6C q.i.d. for 2 weeks; belladonna 6C q.i.d for 2 weeks; Apis millifica 6C t.i.d. for 2 weeks.
Rheumatoid arthritis: Rhus toxicodendron 6C for 2 weeks; bryonia 6C q.i.d. for 2 weeks; ruta graveolens 6C q.i.d. for 2 weeks; pulsatilla 30C t.i.d. for 2 weeks; arnica ointments and gels.
Hands-On Healing TechniquesPhysical therapy.Massage; chiropractic; osteopathy.Craniosacral therapy; rolfing.
* Therapies with the highest degree of scientific support for efficacy and safety.
Therapies that are often helpful but that do not have the highest degree of supporting evidence for efficacy and safety.
Therapies that may be useful but that have limited scientific evidence for efficacy and safety.

NOTE: C denotes the number of times that a substance is diluted at a ratio of 1:100.


SOURCE: Sierpina, VS: Integrative Health Care: Complementary and Alternative Therapies for the Whole Person, FA Davis, Philadelphia, 2000.

Alternative Therapies for Asthma

Therapy Best Evidence * Probably Useful Least Evidence
HerbalsAtropa belladona; capsaicin; ephedra sinensis (12.5-25 mg t.i.d.); quercetin (400 mg ac t.i.d.); glycyrrhiza glabra (1-2 g t.i.d. powdered root; 2-4 ml t.i.d. extract; 250-500 mg dry powdered extract t.i.d.); grape seed extract (50-100 mg t.i.d.); guaiac wood (guafenisin 600 mg b.i.d.).Ginkgo biloba (60 mg b.i.d.); tylophora asthmatica (200 mg b.i.d.).Coleus forskohli (50 mg t.i.d.); lobelia inflata; coltsfoot (potentially toxic).
Diet and Nutrition/LifestyleAvoid sulfites, aspirin, tartrazine, biogenic amines; environmental control; vitamin C (10-30 mg/kg/day in divided doses).Carotenes (25,000-50,000 IU/d); essential fatty acids (fish oils, omega-3 fatty acids); magnesium (200-400 mg t.i.d.); vitamin E (200-400 IU/d); zinc (15-30 mg/d); food allergy identification and avoidance (milk, egg, wheat); green tea (Camellia sinensis); onions, garlic; reduced sodium intake.Treat hypochlorhydria; probiotics; selenium (200 µg/day); vitamin B6 (if on theophylline: 25-50 mg b.i.d.); vitamin B12 (sulfite-sensitive children: 1000 µg/d or IM weekly).
Mind-Body InterventionsBiofeedback; hypnosis; yoga breathing techniques.Treat depression; stress management.
Pharmacological and Biological TreatmentsAnti-Candida diet; DHEA.
Bioelectromagnetic TherapiesElectrical stimulation.
Alternative SystemsAcupuncture; African herbs; ayurvedic herbals; Chinese herbals; homeopathy.
Hands-On Healing TechniquesMassage.Chiropractic; osteopathy.
* Therapies with the highest degree of scientific support for efficacy and safety.
Therapies that are often helpful but that do not have the highest degree of supporting evidence for efficacy and safety.
Therapies that may be useful but that have limited scientific evidence for efficacy and safety.

SOURCE: Sierpina, VS: Integrative Health Care: Complementary and Alternative Therapies for the Whole Person, F.A. Davis, Philadelphia, 2000.

Alternative Therapies for Cancer Prevention and Treatment

Therapy Best Evidence * Probably Useful Least Evidence
HerbalsMistletoe (bladder); yew (paclitaxol), (breast); hoxsey; astragalus membranaceus; polysaccharide krestin; chlorella; capsaicin.Chaparral (toxic); Pau d'arco; essiac tea; evening primrose oil.
Diet and Nutrition/LifestyleMushrooms: maitake, shiitake (colon), enokitake.Whole grain barley; macrobiotic diet; Gerson diet; Hippocrates wheat grass diet; Livingston-Wheeler; Kelley-Gonzales nutritional programs; vitamins A, C, E (controversial).
Mind-Body InterventionsGetting rid of anger, negative emotions; support groups (breast); group therapy (melanoma); stress management; treatment of depression, feelings of helplessness, hopelessness; encouraging a fighting spirit; imagery, biofeedback, hypnosis, meditation; yoga, qi gong; spiritual approaches, prayer, faith healing.Intuitive, psychic approaches.
Pharmacological and Biological TreatmentsAntineoplastins (brain); shark cartilage; bovine tracheal cartilage; hydrazine (cachexia, lung); ozone therapy, hydrogen peroxide; Livingston therapy; immunoaugmentive therapies; melatonin.
Bioelectromagnetic TherapiesNordenstrom electrical stimulation; therapeutic touch.
Alternative Systems of CareAcupuncture, acupressure, moxibustion for relief of pain, nausea, side effects of cancer treatment.Chinese herbal remedies; ayurveda; Homeopathy: gelsemium 6C (anxiety) 2-3×; ipecac 30C (nausea) 3-4× q 15-30 min; nux vomica (nausea/vomiting) 6C t.i.d.-q.i.d. for 1-2 days; cadmium; sulfuricum 30C (vomiting, exhaustion) t.i.d. for 1-2 days.
Hands-On Healing TechniquesMassage and gentle manipulation for pain control, immunostimulation, relaxation.Laying on of hands.
* Therapies with the highest degree of scientific support for efficacy and safety.
Therapies that are often helpful but that do not have the highest degree of supporting evidence for efficacy and safety.
Therapies that may be useful but that have limited scientific evidence for efficacy and safety.

NOTE: C denotes the number of times that a substance is diluted at a ratio of 1:100.


SOURCE: Sierpina, VS: Integrative Health Care: Complementary and Alternative Therapies for the Whole Person, F.A. Davis, Philadelphia, 2000.

Alternative Therapies for Congestive Heart Failure

Therapy Best Evidence * Probably Useful Least Evidence
HerbalsHawthorn (80-300 mg b.i.d., tincture 4-5 ml t.i.d.).Cinnamon (2-3 mg/day, tincture 2-3 ml t.i.d.).
Diet and Nutrition/LifestyleCoenzyme Q10 (30-100 mg t.i.d.); magnesium (300 mg/day); thiamine (20-100 mg/day).Carnitine (500 mg b.i.d.-t.i.d.); taurine (3-6 g/day). l -Arginine (1500 mg-12 g/day).
Mind-Body InterventionsRelaxation and stress management; screen and treatment for depression; guided imagery.Cognitive-behavioral therapy; social support; anger/hostility management; meditation; tai chi; yoga.
* Therapies with the highest degree of scientific support for efficacy and safety.
Therapies that are often helpful but that do not have the highest degree of supporting evidence for efficacy and safety.
Therapies that may be useful but that have limited scientific evidence for efficacy and safety.

SOURCE: Sierpina, VS: Integrative Health Care: Complementary and Alternative Therapies for the Whole Person, F.A. Davis, Philadelphia, 2000.

Alternative Therapies for Coronary Artery Disease

Note: note : C denotes the number of times that substance is diluted at a ratio of 1:100.

Therapy Best Evidence * Probably Useful Least Evidence
HerbalsGinkgo biloba (40 mg t.i.d.); garlic (900 mg/day or 1 clove); curcumin (400 mg t.i.d.); green tea (3-5 C/day).Khella (250-300 mg/day); eutherococcus (Siberian ginseng) (2-3 g/day); gugulipid (25 mg/t.i.d.)—lipid-lowering agent.
Diet and Nutrition/LifestyleExercise; eliminate tobacco, caffeine, alcohol; low-fat diet/dietary antioxidants; Ornish program; vegetarian diets; vitamin C (1 g/day); vitamin E (400-800 IU/day); vitamin B6 (50-100 mg/day); vitamin B12 (800 µg/day); folic acid (800 µg/day).Resveratrol (red wine) and other bioflavonoids; consumption of nuts; selenium (100-200 µg/day); pantethine (300 mg t.i.d.).Evening primrose oil (3-6 g/day).
Mind-Body InterventionsRelaxation and stress management; screen and treat for depression; guided imagery.Cognitive-behavioral therapy; social support; anger/hostility management; meditation; tai chi; yoga.
Pharmacological and Biological TreatmentsChelation therapy.
Alternative Systems of CareAcupuncture; traditional Chinese medicine; ayurveda.
* Therapies with the highest degree of scientific support for efficacy and safety.
Therapies that are often helpful but that do not have the highest degree of supporting evidence for efficacy and safety.
Therapies that may be useful but that have limited scientific evidence for efficacy and safety.

SOURCE: Sierpina, VS: Integrative Health Care: Complementary and Alternative Therapies for the Whole Person, F.A. Davis, Philadelphia, 2000.

Alternative Therapies for Depression

Therapy Best Evidence * Probably Useful Least Evidence
HerbalsGinkgo biloba (80 mg t.i.d.) in elderly; Saint John's Wort (300 mg t.i.d., 0.3% hypericin).Saint John's Wort and 5-HTP in combination; damiana; yohimbe; aromatherapy
Diet and Nutrition/LifestyleExercise; relaxation, stress reduction; thiamine (1-10 mg/d); niacin (500-1000 mg b.i.d.); pyridoxine (50-100 mg/d); folic acid (800 µg/d); vitamin B12 (800 µg/d); vitamin C (500-1000 mg t.i.d.).S-adenosyl-l-methionine (SAMe) (200mg b.i.d.-400 mg q.i.d.). Avoid in bipolar disorder. 5-HT (hydroxytryptophan) (100-200 mg t.i.d.); flaxseed oil (1T/day); iron replacement; vitamin E (200-400 IU/day).Inositol; phenylalanine; phosphatidylserine; tyrosine; detect and treat food allergy; restrict caffeine and sugar.
Mind-Body InterventionsCognitive-behavioral therapy; spiritual approaches, prayer.Tai chi; qi gong; hypnosis; meditation; biofeedback.
Pharmacological and Biological TreatmentsDHEA; neural therapy.
Bioelectromagnetic TherapiesLight therapy (for seasonal affective disorder).Magnetic brain stimulation; energy healing.
Alternative Systems of CareAcupuncture.Ayurveda.Homeopathy (not commonly used except for postpartum depression): Each t.i.d. for 2 weeks: sepia 30C; ignatia 30C; pulsatilla 30C; natrum muriatricum 30C.
Hands-On Healing TechniquesMassage.
* Therapies with the highest degree of scientific support for efficacy and safety.
Therapies that are often helpful but that do not have the highest degree of supporting evidence for efficacy and safety.
Therapies that may be useful but that have limited scientific evidence for efficacy and safety.

NOTE: C denotes the number of times that a substance is diluted at a ratio of 1:100.


SOURCE: Sierpina, VS: Integrative Health Care: Complementary and Alternative Therapies for the Whole Person, F.A. Davis, Philadelphia, 2000.

Alternative Therapies for Diabetes

Therapy Best Evidence * Probably Useful Least Evidence
Herbals Artemesia herba alba; bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus) (retinopathy): 80-160 mg t.i.d.; bitter melon (Momordica charantia): 30-60 ml of juice/day; coccinia indica; gymnema sylvestre: 200 mg b.i.d.; ginkgo biloba (retinopathy, neuropathy, and vascular complications): 40 mg t.i.d.; garlic; green tea (Camellia sinensis) 2C/day; Trigonella foenum-graecum.Artichoke; dandelion leaves; eleutherococcus; fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum): 50 g/day defatted seed powder; ginseng 100 mg t.i.d.; glucomannan; guar gum; horehound; juniper; lavender; myrrh; neem; primrose oil (neuropathy); salt bush (Atriplex halimu); silymarin (cirrhosis in diabetes); Spanish needles (Bidens pilosa); tragacanth; yellow bells (Tecoma stans)
Diet and Nutrition/LifestyleRegular exercise; weight loss; diet high in fiber, low in simple sugars and fats; Pritikin diet; Ornish diet.Alpha-lipoic acid; biotin (type 1 and type 2 DM): 9-16 mg/day; chromium (200 µg/day); essential fatty acids (cold-water fish, 480 mg/day; gamma linoleic acid, 1 T/day flaxseed oil); magnesium (300-500 mg/day); onion; potassium (dietary); vitamin C (>2 g/day in divided doses); vitamin B3 (prevention of new-onset type 1: 25 mg/kg/day); inositol hexaniacinate (hyperlipidemia): 500-1000 mg/day; vitamin B6 (neuropathy): 50-100 mg/day; vitamin B12 (neuropathy): 1000-3000 µg /day p.o. or 1000 µg/wk IM); vitamin E (800-900 IU/day); zinc (30 mg/day).Flavonoids (dietary, 1-2/day); manganese (30 mg/day).
Mind-Body InterventionsSelf-care, personal locus of control and responsibility.Biofeedback; reduction of threat of DM (adolescents); relaxation therapy; social support; spiritual approaches; yoga.Treatment of depression; qi gong.
Bioelectromagnetic TherapiesElectrical stimulation.
Alternative Systems of CareAcupuncture (neuropathy); traditional Chinese medicine.Ayurveda; curanderismo herbalism.
Hands-On Healing TechniquesMassage.
* Therapies with the highest degree of scientific support for efficacy and safety.
Therapies that are often helpful but that do not have the highest degree of supporting evidence for efficacy and safety.
Therapies that may be useful but that have limited scientific evidence for efficacy and safety.

SOURCE: Sierpina, VS: Integrative Health Care: Complementary and Alternative Therapies for the Whole Person, F.A. Davis, Philadelphia, 2000.

Alternative Therapies for Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease

Therapy Best Evidence * Probably Useful Least Evidence
HerbalsDeglycyrrhizinated licorice (DGL), 380-760 mg t.i.d./ac.Caraway; lemon balm; raspberry tea; white wine (increases gastric emptying).Oregon grape, yellow dock, wormwood.
Diet and Nutrition/LifestyleLactase (for those with lactose intolerance); lipase (pancreatic insufficiency); weight loss; small meals; don't lie down for 2 hr after a meal; elevate head of bed 6 in; avoid foods that promote reflux, like alcohol, tobacco, caffeine, onions, spicy foods, peppermint.Proteolytic enzymes; vitamin A up to 25,000 IU/day; vitamin C 500 mg t.i.d.; vitamin E 100 IU t.i.d.; zinc 20 mg/day.
Alternative Systems of CareAcupuncture; ayurveda. Homeopathy: bryonia 6C q 30 min for 2 hr; carbo vegetabilis 6C q 30 min for 2 hr; lycopodium 6C q 30 min for 2 hr; nux vomica 6C q 30 min for 2 hr.
Hands-on Healing TechniquesOsteopathic manipulation.
* Therapies with the highest degree of scientific support for efficacy and safety.
Therapies that are often helpful but that do not have the highest degree of supporting evidence for efficacy and safety.
Therapies that may be useful but that have limited scientific evidence for efficacy and safety.

NOTE: C denotes the number of times that a substance is diluted at a ratio of 1:100.


SOURCE: Sierpina, VS: Integrative Health Care: Complementary and Alternative Therapies for the Whole Person, F.A. Davis, Philadelphia, 2000.

Alternative Therapies for Gastrointestinal Problems

Therapy Best Evidence * Probably Useful Least Evidence
HerbalsAloe (constipation), 30 ml t.i.d.; cascara (constipation), tea from 1 tsp. bark b.i.d., 1 ml tincture b.i.d.; deglycyrrhizinated licorice (DGL) (peptic ulcer disease [PUD]), 380-760 mg t.i.d./ac; peppermint (indigestion), 0.2 ml-0.4 ml enteric coated oil b.i.d.-t.i.d./ac; senna (constipation).Aloe (heartburn), 30 ml t.i.d.; bilberry (diarrhea); boldo (cholagogue, indigestion); caraway; chamomile (antispasmodic, colic, PUD) 2-3 g/day, 3-5 ml tincture t.i.d., as tea t.i.d.-q.i.d.; ginger (nausea), 500 mg t.i.d.; goldenseal (diarrhea) 500 mg t.i.d., use with caution; fennel (colic, antispasmodic), tea 1 cup t.i.d.; 600-mg caps t.i.d., for infants, 2 tsp seeds t.i.d.; garlic (antispasmodic), up to 3 g b.i.d.; lemon balm; marijuana (nausea); raspberry tea; sage (antispasmodic); white wine (increases gastric emptying).Bitters (indigestion): barberry, dandelion; Oregon grape, yellow dock, wormwood; butcher's broom (hemorrhoids); horse chestnut (hemorrhoids).
Diet and Nutrition/LifestyleLactase (for those with lactose intolerance); lipase (pancreatic insufficiency).Bismuth (PUD), 240 mg subcitrate b.i.d./ac, subsalicylate 500 mg q.i.d./ac; cabbage (PUD), 1 L juice daily, effects possibly due to glutamine content; charcoal (excess gas); lactobacillus acidophilus (diarrhea, antibiotic-induced diarrhea).Betaine HCl (low stomach acidity); flavonoids (PUD), 500 mg t.i.d.; proteolytic enzymes; yogurt (antibiotic-induced diarrhea); vitamin A up to 25,000 IU/day; vitamin C 500 mg t.i.d.; vitamin E 100 IU t.i.d.; zinc 30 mg/day.
Mind-Body InterventionsDepression (functional bowel complaints), detect and treat; exercise (constipation); psychotherapy; stress management (PUD).
Alternative Systems of CareAcupuncture (nausea); acupressure (nausea); ayurveda.Homeopathy: Colic: cuprum metallicum 6C t.i.d.-q.i.d.; chamomile 6C t.i.d. for 3-4 days; colocynthis 30C t.i.d.; nux vomica 6C q 15 min until vomiting ceases; belladonna 6C q 1 hr for up to 6 doses; bryonia 6C q 1 hr for up to 6 doses.
Constipation: nux vomica 6C t.i.d. for 10 days; sepia 30C: 3 doses in 24 hr once a month; sulfur 6C t.i.d. up to 10 days.
Diarrhea: arsenicum album 6C q 30 min for up to 6 doses, then t.i.d.; argentum nitricum 6C q 1 hr up to 6 doses; podophyllum 30C t.i.d.-q.i.d. for 2 days; pulsatilla 6C q 2 hr for up to 6 doses; sulfur 6C q 1 hr up to 6 doses, then t.i.d.
Hemorrhoids: hamamelis 6C t.i.d. for 3 days; calcarea fluorica 6C t.i.d.-q.i.d. for 3-4 days; arnica 30C q.i.d. for 2-3 days; aesculus; hippocastanum 30C t.i.d. for 3 days.
Heartburn, indigestion, and gas: nux vomica 6C q 30 min for 2 hr; carbo vegetabilis 6C q 30 min for 2 hr; lycopodium 6C 2-3 times after meals; natrum phosphoricum 6C q 30 min for 2 hr; arsenicum album 6C q 1 hr up to 6 doses, then t.i.d.
* Therapies with the highest degree of scientific support for efficacy and safety.
Therapies that are often helpful but that do not have the highest degree of supporting evidence for efficacy and safety.
Therapies that may be useful but that have limited scientific evidence for efficacy and safety.

NOTE: C denotes the number of times that a substance is diluted at a ratio of 1:100.


SOURCE: Sierpina, VS: Integrative Health Care: Complementary and Alternative Therapies for the Whole Person, F.A. Davis, Philadelphia, 2000.

Alternative Therapies for Migraine Headache

Therapy Best Evidence * Probably Useful Least Evidence
HerbalsFeverfew 0.25-0.5 mg, parthenolide b.i.d.Ginger 4-6 g/day, 1.5-3 ml tincture t.i.d., 500 mg q.i.d. dried ginger, also treats nausea; ginkgo biloba 40-60 mg t.i.d.Capsaicin intranasal; yucca.
Diet and Nutrition/LifestyleVitamin B2 (riboflavin) 400 mg/day for at least 3-4 months.Magnesium 250-400 mg t.i.d., esp. for premenstrual migraine and those with low Mg levels; calcium 800 mg/day; vitamin D 400 IU/day; avoid dietary amines, which provoke migraine: chocolate, cheese, beer, red wine; food allergy: detect and eliminate most common allergenic foods: dairy, wheat, chocolate, eggs; use elimination diet; vitamin B12 25 mg t.i.d.Fish oil, EPA/DHA; S-adenosyl-l-methionine (SAMe) 400 mg q.i.d., gradually increase dose from 200 mg b.i.d. to 400 mg q.i.d. over 3 weeks; 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP) 100-200 mg t.i.d.
Mind-Body InterventionsRelaxation therapy; biofeedback.Guided imagery; meditation; stress management; tai chi; therapeutic touch; yoga.
BioelectromagneticEnergy healing; magnets; TENS.
Alternative Systems of CareAcupuncture; traditional Chinese medicine; ayurveda.Homeopathy: belladonna 6C q 30 min for 1.5 hrs; bryonia 6C q 30 min for 1.5 hrs; gelsemium 30C q 30 min for 1.5 hrs; kali bichromicum 6C q 1 hr up to 6 doses, then t.i.d.
Hands-On Healing TechniquesChiropractic.
* Therapies with the highest degree of scientific support for efficacy and safety.
Therapies that are often helpful but that do not have the highest degree of supporting evidence for efficacy and safety.
Therapies that may be useful but that have limited scientific evidence for efficacy and safety.

NOTE: C denotes the number of times that a substance is diluted at a ratio of 1:100.


SOURCE: Sierpina, VS: Integrative Health Care: Complementary and Alternative Therapies for the Whole Person, F.A. Davis, Philadelphia, 2000.

Alternative Therapies for Tension Headache

Therapy Best Evidence * Probably Useful Least Evidence
Diet and Nutrition/LifestyleMagnesium 250 mg b.i.d.-t.i.d.
Mind-Body InterventionsRelaxation therapy; biofeedback; cognitive therapy.Guided imagery; meditation; progressive muscle relaxation; stress management; tai chi; therapeutic touch; yoga.
Bioelectromagnetic TherapiesEnergy healing; magnets; TENS.
Alternative Systems of CareAcupuncture; traditional Chinese medicine; ayurveda.Homeopathy: belladonna 6C q 30 min for 1½ hrs; bryonia 6C q 30 min for 1½ hrs; gelsemium 30C q 30 min for 1½ hrs; kali bichromicum 6C q 1 hr up to 6 doses, then t.i.d.
Hands on HealingChiropractic.
* Therapies with the highest degree of scientific support for efficacy and safety.
Therapies that are often helpful but that do not have the highest degree of supporting evidence for efficacy and safety.
Therapies that may be useful but that have limited scientific evidence for efficacy and safety.

NOTE: C denotes the number of times that a substance is diluted at a ratio of 1:100.


SOURCE: Sierpina, VS: Integrative Health Care: Complementary and Alternative Therapies for the Whole Person, F.A. Davis, Philadelphia, 2000.

Alternative Therapies for Hepatitis

Therapy Best Evidence * Probably Useful Least Evidence
HerbalsMilk thistle (hepatitis, cirrhosis), 70-140 mg t.i.d.Artichoke; Astragalus membranaceus caraway; glycyrrhizin, licorice root 100 mg/day, 1 g root t.i.d., higher doses affect electrolytes, BP; goldenseal 500 mg t.i.d., use with caution; lemon balm; raspberry tea; turmeric, 250-500 mg b.i.d.Oregon grape, yellow dock, wormwood; evening primrose oil (alcoholic liver disease); Sho-Saiko-to (TJ-9); Compound 861; Phyllanthus amafus.
Diet and Nutrition/LifestyleProteolytic enzymes; vitamin A up to 25,000 IU/day; vitamin C 500 mg t.i.d.; vitamin E 100 IU t.i.d.; zinc 20 mg/day.
Mind-Body InterventionsPsychotherapy.
Alternative Systems of CareAyurveda.
* Therapies with the highest degree of scientific support for efficacy and safety.
Therapies that are often helpful but that do not have the highest degree of supporting evidence for efficacy and safety.
Therapies that may be useful but that have limited scientific evidence for efficacy and safety.

SOURCE: Sierpina, VS: Integrative Health Care: Complementary and Alternative Therapies for the Whole Person, F.A. Davis, Philadelphia, 2000.

Alternative Therapies for Hypercholesterolemia

Therapy Best Evidence * Probably Useful Least Evidence
HerbalsArtichoke 320 mg of std extract t.i.d.; avocado; barley; evening primrose oil; flax seeds 20 g/day, 1 T flaxseed oil daily; glucomannan; pectin; plantain.Fenugreek 5-20 g with meals t.i.d. or 15-90 g once daily with a meal; fo-ti 3-5 g/day as tea t.i.d., 500-mg tabs, up to 5 tabs t.i.d.; ginseng; proanthocyanidins (grape seed extract, pine bark); wild yam 2-3 ml tincture t.i.d., 1-2 tabs t.i.d.; yogurt.
Garlic 1-4 cloves/day, tabs 300 mg t.i.d. (4000-5000 µg of allicin), tincture 2-4 ml t.i.d.; Guggul 500 mg tab t.i.d. (5-10% guggelsterones or total of 25 mg t.i.d.); psyllium 5-10 g/day; Chinese red yeast rice (cholestin) (Monascus purpureus), two 600-mg capsules b.i.d.
Diet and Nutrition/LifestyleExercise; 5-7 servings/day fruits and vegetables (source of bioflavonoids and beta carotene); fiber; Mediterranean diet; quit smoking; soy protein 30 g/day; vegetarian diet; very low-fat diet (Ornish); vitamin B3 (niacin) up to 3 g/day (potential hepatoxicity); weight loss.Calcium 800-1000 mg/day; coenzyme Q10 100-200 mg/day; fish intake (EPA/DHA omega-3 oils); inositol hexaniacinate 500-1000 mg t.i.d.; olive and canola oil; Pritikin program; reduce intake of refined sugars; reduce caffeine intake; red wine or other form of alcohol 1-2 drinks/day; selenium 200 mg/day; vitamin B5 (pantothenic acid) 300 mg b.i.d.-t.i.d. esp. for diabetics, hypertriglyceridemia; vitamin C 100-1000 mg/day; vitamin E 100-800 IU/day.Beta-sitosterol; brewer's yeast 2 T/day carnitine 1-4 g/day; chitosan 3-6 g/day; chromium 200 mg/day; green tea 3C/day; lecithin; magnesium 400 mg/day; mushrooms: shiitake, maitake; oats; octacosanol; vitamins B6 (pyridoxine) 50 mg/day; B9 (folic acid) 400 mg/day; B12 (cyanocobalamin) 1000 mg/day (may lower homocysteine levels, alone or together); quercetin 35 mg/day (apples, onion, black tea); safflower oil.
Mind-Body InterventionsModifying type A behavior, stress reduction, reducing hostility, time urgency, competitiveness; reducing chronic arousal; improving sleep pattern; relaxation therapy.Meditation; qi gong.
Pharmacological and Biological TreatmentsChelation therapy.
Alternative Systems of CareAyurveda; traditional Chinese medicine.
* Therapies with the highest degree of scientific support for efficacy and safety.
Therapies that are often helpful but that do not have the highest degree of supporting evidence for efficacy and safety.
Therapies that may be useful but that have limited scientific evidence for efficacy and safety.

NOTE: C denotes the number of times that a substance is diluted at a ratio of 1:100.


SOURCE: Sierpina, VS: Integrative Health Care: Complementary and Alternative Therapies for the Whole Person, F.A. Davis, Philadelphia, 2000.

Alternative Therapies for Hypertension

Therapy Best Evidence * Probably Useful Least Evidence
HerbalsGarlic; hawthorn.Ginseng, 1 g dried root/day; guar gum, 5 g t.i.d.; yellow root; yucca.
Diet and Nutrition/LifestyleDASH diet; fiber; aerobic exercise; potassium in diet; quit smoking; reduce caffeine; low sodium; weight loss.Vegetarian diet; CoQ10, 50 mg b.i.d.; alcohol intake <3 drinks/day; calcium, 800-1500 mg/day; magnesium, 350-500 mg/day (esp. if taking diuretics); fish oil, EPA/DHA, omega-3 fatty acids 3 g/day.Check for heavy metals such as lead; reduce sugar intake; vitamin C; chitosan; arginine, 2 g t.i.d.
Mind-Body InterventionsAnger prevention or management; anxiety reduction (men); guided imagery; meditation; music therapy; religious attendance; social support; stress management; tai chi; yoga.
Pharmacological and Biological TreatmentsChelation therapy.
Alternative Systems of CareAyurveda; traditional Chinese medicine.Homeopathy.
* Therapies with the highest degree of scientific support for efficacy and safety.
Therapies that are often helpful but that do not have the highest degree of supporting evidence for efficacy and safety.
Therapies that may be useful but that have limited scientific evidence for efficacy and safety.

SOURCE: Sierpina, VS: Integrative Health Care: Complementary and Alternative Therapies for the Whole Person, F.A. Davis, Philadelphia, 2000.

Alternative Therapies for Irritable Bowel Syndrome

Therapy Best Evidence * Probably Useful Least Evidence
HerbalsPeppermint, 0.2 ml-0.4 ml enteric-coated oil b.i.d.-t.i.d./acCaraway; chamomile, 2-3 g/day; 3-5 ml tincture t.i.d., as tea t.i.d.-q.i.d.; fennel (colic antispasmodic), tea 1 cup t.i.d., 600 mg caps t.i.d., for infants 2 tsp seeds t.i.d.; garlic (antispasmodic), up to 3 g b.i.d.; lemon balm; raspberry tea; sage (antispasmodic).Oregon grape, yellow, dock, wormwood.
Diet and Nutrition/LifestyleLactase (for those with lactose intolerance); lipase (pancreatic insufficiency); fiber; food allergy: identify and eliminate if present; dairy and grain most common factors.Charcoal (excess gas); lactobacillus acidophilus; refined sugar: reduce amount in diet.Proteolytic enzymes; vitamin A up to 25,000 IU/day; vitamin C 500 mg t.i.d.; vitamin E 100 IU t.i.d.; zinc 20 mg/day.
Mind-Body InterventionsCognitive behavioral therapy; depression (functional bowel complaints), detect and treat; exercise; hypnotherapy; biofeedback; progressive muscle relaxation; psychotherapy; stress management.
Alternative Systems of CareTraditional Chinese medicine herbals; acupuncture; ayurveda.Homeopathy: (follow label dosages) argentum nitricum; asa foetida; colocynthis; lillium tigrinum; lycopodium; natrum carbonicum; nux vomica; podophyllum; sulfur.
* Therapies with the highest degree of scientific support for efficacy and safety.
Therapies that are often helpful but that do not have the highest degree of supporting evidence for efficacy and safety.
Therapies that may be useful but that have limited scientific evidence for efficacy and safety.

SOURCE: Sierpina, VS: Integrative Health Care: Complementary and Alternative Therapies for the Whole Person, F.A. Davis, Philadelphia, 2000.

Alternative Therapies for Musculoskeletal Problems

Therapy Best Evidence * Probably Useful Least Evidence
HerbalsArnica ointment/gel (topical); tiger balm; white willow (salicylate); glucosamine, chondroifin Topical agents for wound and tissue healing, pain: aescin (horse chestnut); aloe gel; angelica; calendula; comfrey; echinacea; Saint John's wort oil; tea tree; witch hazel; wintergreen oil; curcumin (anti-inflammatory) Tissue and wound healing: cat's claw; gotu kola; aromatherapy: lavender, camphor, eucalyptus, chamomile, rosemary.
Athletic performance enhancement: Asian ginseng, eleuthero; guarana.
Diet and Nutrition/LifestyleStretching, conditioning, warm-up to prevent injuries; bioflavonoids: citrus 900-1800 mg/day (improves healing time of injuries); enzymes: bromelain 500 MCU q.i.d. (proteolytic, anti-inflammatory).Calcium 800-1000 mg/day (bone, muscle injury); magnesium 300 mg t.i.d. (muscle spasm, injury); vitamin C 400-3000 mg/day (connective tissue support, muscle damage); vitamin E 400-1200 IU/day (muscle damage), topically for scars; eliminate food allergy (may worsen inflammation). Tissue/Wound Healing: vitamin A; copper, manganese, silicon, zinc; chondroitin sulfate; glucosamine sulfate; arginine, glutamine, l-carnitine.
Bursitis: vitamin B12 1000 µg q.d. for 2-4 wk IM or subcutaneously.
Fibromyalgia: vitamin B1 10-100 mg/day; magnesium 300-600 mg/day; vitamin E 100-300 IU/day; d , l -phenylalanine 500-700 mg t.i.d. (for pain).
Enhancing athletic performance: antioxidants, B complex vitamins, chromium, zinc, iron, magnesium, branched-chain amino acids, carnitine, pyruvate whey protein, leucine, inosine, ornithine, ornithine alpha-ketoglutarate, glutamine, creatine, gamma oryzanol, medium-chain triglycerides.
Mind-Body InterventionsRegular exercise, stretching; tai chi; yoga.Biofeedback; guided imagery; hypnosis; music therapy; qi gong; relaxation therapy; spiritual interventions.
Pharmacological and Biological TreatmentsHydrotherapy (add essential oils, Epsom salts); spa therapy; DMSO topically.
Bioelectromagnetic TherapiesTENS unit.Energy medicine; healing touch; reiki; therapeutic touch.Hyperbaric oxygen; light therapy; magnet therapy.
Alternative Systems of CareAcupuncture; acupressure; traditional Chinese medicine: cupping; ayurveda: massage, oil, herbal techniques.Homeopathy: Broken bone support: arnica 30C q 15-30 min for 2 hr, then t.i.d. for 2 days; Ruta graveolens 6C t.i.d. for 2-3 days.
Sprains and injuries: arnica 30C t.i.d.-q.i.d. for 2-3 days; Ruta graveolens 6C t.i.d. for 2-3 days; Ledum 30C t.i.d. for 2-3 days.
Bursitis: Rhus toxicodendron 6C t.i.d.-q.i.d. for 3-4 days; Ruta graveolens 6C t.i.d. for 3-4 days; belladonna 6C t.i.d.-q.i.d. for 1-2 days.
Hands-On Healing TechniquesCraniosacral; Feldenkrais; rolfing; trager.Chiropractic; massage; osteopathy.
* Therapies with the highest degree of scientific support for efficacy and safety.
Therapies that are often helpful but that do not have the highest degree of supporting evidence for efficacy and safety.
Therapies that may be useful but that have limited scientific evidence for efficacy and safety.

NOTE: C denotes the number of times that a substance is diluted at a ratio of 1:100.


SOURCE: Sierpina, VS: Integrative Health Care: Complementary and Alternative Therapies for the Whole Person, F.A. Davis, Philadelphia, 2000.

Alternative Therapies for Upper Respiratory Infections

Therapy Best Evidence * Probably Useful Least Evidence
HerbalsEchinacea 3-5 ml tincture or juice t.i.d., 300-600 mg caps t.i.d., dried root or as tea 0.5-1.0 g t.i.d.Garlic 300 mg (4000-5000 µg allicin) t.i.d., 1-4 cloves/day; goldenseal 4-6 g t.i.d.Immune support: Asian ginseng, astragalus, eleuthero, schisandra.
Antiviral/antibiotic: elderberry, horseradish, myrrh, usnea.
Symptomatic relief: slippery elm, marshmallow, red raspberry, blackberry, blueberry, sage, yarrow, eucalyptus oil, meadowsweet.
Diet and Nutrition/LifestyleAvoid exhausting exercise; bedrest; drink large amounts of fluids.Vitamin C 1-3 g/day; avoid dietary allergens; Gargle: salt water and vinegar; hot water with lemon juice and honey.Zinc gluconate or gluconate-glycine lozenges 10/day until better; l-lysine 4-5 g/day initially, then 500 mg t.i.d. for cold sores, l-lysine cream; vitamin A 15,000-25,000 IU/day (unless pregnant); beta carotene 50,000-100,000 IU/day.
Mind-Body InterventionsSocial support; stress management and awareness.
Pharmacological and Biological TreatmentsControl respiratory allergies with antihistamines, nasal steroids, avoidance of allergens.Hyperthermia.
Bioelectromagnetic TherapiesEnergy medicine; hydrotherapy; magnet therapy.
Alternative Systems of CareAyurveda; traditional Chinese medicine; acupuncture; cupping.Homeopathy: aconite 30C q 2 hrs for 3 doses only; kali bichromicum 6C t.i.d.-q.i.d. for 2-3 days; Rhus toxicodendron 6C q 2 hrs up to 6 doses; euphrasia 6C q.i.d.
Hands-On Healing TechniquesPercussion.
* Therapies with the highest degree of scientific support for efficacy and safety.
Therapies that are often helpful but that do not have the highest degree of supporting evidence for efficacy and safety.
Therapies that may be useful but that have limited scientific evidence for efficacy and safety.

NOTE: C denotes the number of times that a substance is diluted at a ratio of 1:100.


SOURCE: Sierpina, VS: Integrative Health Care: Complementary and Alternative Therapies for the Whole Person, F.A. Davis, Philadelphia, 2000.

Alternative Therapies for Urinary Tract Infections

Therapy Best Evidence * Probably Useful Least Evidence
HerbalsCranberry juice 0.5 L/day, 400 mg/b.i.d of extract; blueberry juice 0.25 L/dayUva ursi 3-5 ml tincture, 100-250 mg t.i.d. (as arbutin in herbal extract) (requires alkaline urine—potassium or sodium citrate, .5 tsp sodium bicarbonate, Alka Seltzer); garlic 300 mg t.i.d., 1-4 cloves/day; goldenseal 250-300 mg t.i.d. std extract, 3-4 g/day root caps, tabs, tincture; sandalwood oil 1-2 drops t.i.d.; herbal diuretic teas: asparagus, birch, couch grass, horsetail, Java tea, juniper lovage, spiny restharrow, nettle, parsley: 1-3 tsp (5-15 g) steeped for 15 min and taken t.i.d.
Diet and Nutrition/LifestyleDrink large amounts of low-sugar juices, water, other fluids (>2 L/day); urinate after intercourse (women); eliminate obstruction.Identify and eliminate food allergies in recurrent infections; vitamin C 5 g/day; vitamin A 25,000 IU/day; beta-carotene 200,000 IU/day; zinc 30 mg/day; bromelain; multivitamins.
Alternative Systems of CareAyurveda; traditional Chinese medicine.Homeopathy: cantharis 30C t.i.d. for 2 days; sepia 30C t.i.d. for 2 days; belladonna 6C q 2 hr up to 6 doses; staphysagria 12C t.i.d. for 2 days; nux vomica q 2 hr up to 6 doses.
* Therapies with the highest degree of scientific support for efficacy and safety.
Therapies that are often helpful but that do not have the highest degree of supporting evidence for efficacy and safety.
Therapies that may be useful but that have limited scientific evidence for efficacy and safety.

NOTE: C denotes the number of times that a substance is diluted at a ratio of 1:100.


SOURCE: Sierpina, VS: Integrative Health Care: Complementary and Alternative Therapies for the Whole Person, F.A. Davis, Philadelphia, 2000.

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Citation

Venes, Donald, editor. "Alternative Therapies." Taber's Medical Dictionary, 23rd ed., F.A. Davis Company, 2017. Taber's Online, www.tabers.com/tabersonline/view/Tabers-Dictionary/768000/all/Alternative_Therapies.
Alternative Therapies. In: Venes D, ed. Taber's Medical Dictionary. 23rd ed. F.A. Davis Company; 2017. https://www.tabers.com/tabersonline/view/Tabers-Dictionary/768000/all/Alternative_Therapies. Accessed April 24, 2019.
Alternative Therapies. (2017). In Venes, D. (Ed.), Taber's Medical Dictionary. Available from https://www.tabers.com/tabersonline/view/Tabers-Dictionary/768000/all/Alternative_Therapies
Alternative Therapies [Internet]. In: Venes D, editors. Taber's Medical Dictionary. F.A. Davis Company; 2017. [cited 2019 April 24]. Available from: https://www.tabers.com/tabersonline/view/Tabers-Dictionary/768000/all/Alternative_Therapies.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - ELEC T1 - Alternative Therapies ID - 768000 ED - Venes,Donald, BT - Taber's Medical Dictionary UR - https://www.tabers.com/tabersonline/view/Tabers-Dictionary/768000/all/Alternative_Therapies PB - F.A. Davis Company ET - 23 DB - Taber's Online DP - Unbound Medicine ER -