(lig′ă-mĕnt)

[L. ligamentum, a band]

1. A band or sheet of strong fibrous connective tissue connecting the articular ends of bones, binding them together to limit motion.
2. A thickened portion or fold of peritoneum or mesentery that supports a visceral organ or connects it to another viscus.
3. A band of fibrous connective tissue connecting bones, cartilages, and other structures and serving to support or attach fascia or muscles.
4. A cordlike structure representing the vestigial remains of a fetal blood vessel.

accessory ligament

A ligament that supplements another, esp. one on the lateral surface of a joint. This type of ligament lies outside of and independent of the capsule of a joint.

acromioclavicular ligament

The ligament supporting the acromioclavicular joint; it joins the acromial process of the scapula and the distal end of the clavicle and, in combination with the coracoclavicular ligaments, holds the clavicle down.

alar ligament

One of a pair of short round ligaments extending up from the sides of the dens, through the foramen of the atlas, and attaching to the sides of the foramen magnum of the skull. They limit side flexion and rotation of the head in relation to the vertebral column

annular ligament

A circular ligament, esp. one enclosing a head or radius or one holding the footplate of the stapes in the oval window.

anococcygeal ligament

A band of fibrous tissue joining the tip of the coccyx with the external anal sphincter.

anterior cruciate ligament

ABBR: ACL The ligament of the knee that originates on the anteromedial portion of the tibia's intercondylar eminence, passes laterally to the posterior cruciate ligament, and attaches on the medial portion of the posterior aspect of the lateral femoral condyle. The ACL prevents anterior displacement of the tibia relative to the femur, internal and external rotation of the tibia on the femur, and hyperextension of the tibiofemoral joint.

SYMPTOMS
A torn ACL causes pain and functional instability in the knee.

TREATMENT
Arthroscopic surgery is usually necessary to repair torn ACLs. Sometimes open surgery, or arthrotomy, is necessary for particularly complex repairs.

anterior longitudinal ligament

The thick wide connective tissue band running along the front of the entire vertebral column. The anterior longitudinal ligament attaches to the front and sides of the bodies of the vertebrae and the intervertebral disks.

anterior talofibular ligament

The ligament of the ankle that connects the lateral talus and fibular malleolus, preventing anterior displacement of the talus in the mortise. This ligament is injured with an excessive inversion and plantar flexion motion (supination) and is the most commonly injured ligament of the ankle.

anterior tibiofibular ligament

A broad ligament located on the anterior half of the distal fibula, superior to the lateral malleolus, that binds the fibula to the tibia. The anterior tibiofibular ligament is part of the distal ankle syndesmosis.
SEE: crural interosseous ligament; posterior tibiofibular ligament

anterior tibiotalar ligament

Ligament of the ankle that connects the anteromedial portion of the talus to the anterior portion of the medial malleolus, preventing anterior displacement of the talus within the mortise, esp. when the ankle is plantar flexed. The anterior tibiotalar ligament is categorized as part of the ankle's deltoid ligament complex.
SEE: deltoid ligament

apical ligament

A single median ligament extending from the odontoid process to the occipital bone.

arcuate ligaments

The lateral, medial, and exterior ligaments that extend from the 12th rib to the transverse process of the first lumbar vertebra, to which the diaphragm is attached.

arterial ligament

A fibrous cord extending from the pulmonary artery to the arch of the aorta, the remains of the ductus arteriosus of the fetus.

auricular ligaments

The anterior, posterior, and superior auricular ligaments uniting the external ear to the temporal bone.

broad ligament of liver

A wide, sickle-shaped fold of peritoneum, attached to the lower surface of the diaphragm, the internal surface of the right rectus abdominis muscle, and the convex surface of the liver.

broad ligament of uterus

The folds of peritoneum attached to lateral borders of the uterus from insertion of the fallopian tube above to the pelvic wall. They consist of two layers between which are found the remnants of the wolffian ducts, cellular tissues, and the major blood vessels of the pelvis.

calcaneofibular ligament

ABBR: CFL An extracapsular ligament of the lateral ankle joint. The calcaneofibular ligament originates from the inferior apex of the lateral malleolus and courses at approximately a 133° angle to attach to the calcaneus. It is the primary restraint against talar inversion when the ankle is in its neutral position.

capsular ligaments

Heavy fibrous structures, lined with synovial membrane and surrounding articulations.

carpal ligaments

The ligaments uniting the carpal bones.

caudal ligament

The ligament formed by bundles of fibrous tissue uniting dorsal surfaces of the two lower coccygeal vertebrae and superjacent skin.

check ligament

A ligament that restrains the motion of a joint, esp. the lateral odontoid ligaments.

collateral ligament

One of the ligaments that provide medial and lateral stability to joints. They include the medial (ulnar) and lateral (radial) collateral ligaments at the elbow, the medial (tibial) and lateral (fibular) collateral ligaments at the knee, the medial (deltoid) and lateral collateral ligaments at the ankle, and the collateral ligaments of the fingers.COLLATERAL LIGAMENT (a)Three parts of the medial (ulnar) collateral ligament are shown on the medial aspect of the right elbow. The musculature and joint capsule have been removed to show the ligament's attachments.

conoid ligament

The posterior and inner portion of the coracoclavicular ligament.

coracoacromial ligament

The broad triangular ligament attached to the outer edge of the coracoid process of the scapula and the tip of the acromion.

coracoclavicular ligament

The ligament uniting the clavicle and coracoid process of the scapula. It has two parts, the conoid and the trapezoid ligaments.

CORACOCLAVICULAR LIGAMENT

coracohumeral ligament

The broad ligament connecting the coracoid process of the scapula to the greater tubercle of the humerus.

coronary ligament of liver

A fold of peritoneum extending from the posterior edge of the liver to the diaphragm.

costocolic ligament

The ligament attaching the splenic flexure of the colon to the diaphragm.

costocoracoid ligament

The ligament joining the first rib and coracoid process of the scapula.

costotransverse ligaments

The ligaments uniting the ribs with the transverse processes of the vertebrae.

costovertebral ligaments

Ligaments uniting the ribs and vertebrae.

cricopharyngeal ligament

A ligamentous bundle between the upper and posterior border of the cricoid cartilage and the anterior wall of the pharynx.

cricothyroid ligament

The ligament uniting cricoid and thyroid cartilages and the location for the horizontal incision (called coniotomy) to prevent choking.

cricotracheal ligament

The ligamentous structure uniting the upper ring of the trachea and the cricoid cartilage.
SEE: cricoid cartilage.

cruciate ligament

1. The ligament of the ankle passing transversely across the dorsum of the foot that holds tendons of the anterior muscle group in place.
2. A cross-shaped ligament of the atlas consisting of the transverse ligament and superior and inferior bands, the former passing upward and attaching to the margin of the foramen magnum, the latter passing downward and attaching to the body of the atlas.
3. Either of two ligaments of the knee, the anterior (from the posterior femur to the anterior tibia), and the posterior (from the anterior femur to posterior tibia). They provide rotary stability for the knee and prevent displacement of the tibia.
SYN: cruciform ligament
SEE: anterior cruciate ligament

SYMPTOMS
A torn cruciate ligament causes instability and pain in the knee. The type of instability depends on which cruciate ligament is damaged.

TREATMENT
Arthroscopic surgery is usually necessary to repair torn cruciate ligaments. Sometimes open surgery, or arthrotomy, is necessary for particularly complex repairs.

cruciform ligament

Cruciate ligament.

crural ligament

Inguinal ligament.

crural interosseous ligament

A thickening of the interosseous membrane as it extends into the space between the distal tibia and fibula, allowing only a slight amount of spreading between the two bones.
SEE: anterior tibiofibular ligament; posterior tibiofibular ligament

deltoid ligament

The collective term for the medial ankle ligaments, formed by the anterior tibiotalar, tibionavicular, tibiocalcaneal, and posterior tibiotalar ligaments. As a group, the deltoid ligament limits eversion and rotation of the talus within the ankle mortise.

dentate ligaments

Lateral extensions of the spinal pia mater between the nerve roots; they fuse with the arachnoid and dura mater, and hold the spinal cord in place in the dural sheath. They have a scalloped appearance as they pierce the arachnoid to attach to the dura mater at regular intervals.

dentoalveolar ligament

Periodontal ligament.

falciform ligament of liver

A wide, sickle-shaped fold of peritoneum attached to the lower surface of the diaphragm, internal surface of the right rectus abdominis muscle, and convex surface of the liver.

fallopian ligament

The round ligament of the uterus.

Flood's ligament

SEE: Flood's ligament

fundiform ligament of penis

The ligament extending from the lower portion of the linea alba and Scarpa's fascia to the dorsum of the penis.

gastrocolic ligament

The secondary attachment of the greater curvature of the stomach and the transverse colon formed by the folding of the gastrocolic mesentery to become the greater omentum.

gastrophrenic ligament

A fold of peritoneum between the esophageal end of the stomach and the diaphragm.

gastrosplenic ligament

The fold of visceral peritoneum that connects the edge of the stomach and the hilum of the spleen.

Gimbernat ligament

SEE: Gimbernat ligament

gingivodental ligament

The part of the periodontal ligament that extends into the gingiva and blends with the connective tissue lamina propria.

glenohumeral ligament

One of the fibers of the coracohumeral ligament passing into the joint and inserted into the inner and upper part of the bicipital groove.

glenoid ligament

Glenoid labrum.

glossoepiglottidean ligament

The elastic band from the base of the tongue to the epiglottis in the middle glossoepiglottidean fold.

Henle's ligament

SEE: Henle, Friedrich G.J.

hepaticoduodenal ligament

A fold of peritoneum from the transverse fissure of the liver to the vicinity of the duodenum and right flexure of colon, forming the anterior boundary of the epiploic foramen.

Hey's ligament

SEE: Hey's ligament

iliofemoral ligament

The Y-shaped bundle of fibers forming the upper and anterior portion of the capsular ligament of the hip joint. This ligament extends from the ilium to the intertrochanteric line.
SYN: Y ligament

iliolumbar ligament

The ligament extending from the fourth and fifth lumbar vertebrae to the iliac crest.

iliopectineal ligament

A portion of the pelvic fascia attached to the iliopectineal line and to the capsular ligament of the hip joint.

infundibulopelvic ligament

Suspensory ligament of ovary.

inguinal ligament

The ligament extending from the anterior superior iliac spine to the pubic tubercle.
SYN: crural ligament; Poupart ligament

interclavicular ligament

The bundle of fibers between the sternal ends of the clavicles, attached to the interclavicular notch of the sternum.

interspinal ligament

The ligament extending from the superior margin of a spinous process of one vertebra to the lower margin of the one above.

ischiocapsular ligament

In the hip, the ligament extending from the ischium to the ischial border of the acetabulum.

lacunar ligament

SEE: Gimbernat's ligament

lateral occipitoatlantal ligament

The ligament on each side between the transverse processes of the atlas and the jugular process of the occipital bone.

lateral odontoid ligament

One of the ligaments extending between the sides of the odontoid process of the axis of the spinal column and the inner sides of condyles of the occipital bone.

lateral ligaments of liver

Folds of peritoneum extending from the lower surface of the diaphragm to adjacent borders of the right and left lobes of the liver.
SYN: triangular ligaments of liver

lateral umbilical ligament

The fibrous cord extending from the bladder to the umbilicus. It represents the obliterated internal iliac artery of the fetus.

Lisfranc's ligaments

SEE: Lisfranc de St. Martin, Jacques

Lockwood's ligament

SEE: Lockwood's ligament

Mackenrodt's ligament

SEE: Mackenrodt's ligament

medial ligament

A broad ligament that connects the medial malleolus of the tibia to the tarsal bones.

median umbilical ligament

The fibrous cord extending from the apex of the bladder to the umbilicus. It represents the remains of the urachus of the fetus.

meniscofemoral ligaments

Two small ligaments of the knee, one anterior and one posterior. The anterior one attaches to the posterior area of the lateral meniscus and the anterior cruciate ligament. The posterior one attaches to the posterior area of the lateral meniscus and the medial condyle of the femur.

middle costotransverse ligament

A ligament consisting of parallel fibers extending between a vertebra and its adjacent rib.

nephrocolic ligaments

Fibrous strands that connect the kidneys with the ascending and descending colon.

nuchal ligament

The upward continuation of the supraspinous ligament, extending from the seventh cervical vertebra to the occipital bone.

palpebral ligaments

Two ligaments, medial and lateral, extending from tarsal plates of the eyelids to the frontal process of the maxilla and the zygomatic bone, respectively. The orbicularis oculi muscles attach to the medial palpebral ligaments.

patellar ligament

The continuation of the tendon of the quadriceps femoris muscle; it encloses the patella and secures it in front of the knee joint.

pectineal ligament

A triangular ligament that extends from the medial end of the inguinal ligament along the pectineal line of the pubis.

periodontal ligament

ABBR: PDL The connective tissue attached to the cementum on the outer surface of a dental root and the osseous tissue of the alveolar process. The periodontal ligament holds the teeth in the sockets of the bone.
SYN: dentoalveolar l.; alveolar periosteum

Petit's ligament

SEE: Petit, Jean Louis

phrenicocolic ligament

A fold of peritoneum joining the left colic flexure of the colon to the adjacent costal portion of the diaphragm.

phrenicopericardial ligaments

The connective tissue that attaches the bottom of the fibrous pericardial sac to the top of the central tendon of the diaphragm. When the diaphragm contracts and moves downward, the pericardial sac and the heart are pulled down and elongated.

popliteal arcuate ligament

The ligament on the posterolateral side of the knee, extending from the head of the fibula to the joint capsule.

posterior longitudinal ligament

The continuous narrow band of connective tissue lining the front inner surface of the entire vertebral canal. It attaches the vertebral bodies and intervertebral disks and forms the smooth front wall of the vertebral foramen.

posterior talofibular ligament

ABBR: PTL A ligament of the lateral ankle that attaches the posterior portion of the talus, and a portion of the posterolateral calcaneus, to the medial malleolus. The posterior talofibular ligament limits the excessive dorsiflexion and inversion of the talus within the ankle mortise.

posterior tibiofibular ligament

A broad ligament that binds the fibula to the tibia; located on the posterior half of the distal fibula, superior to the lateral malleolus. The posterior tibiofibular ligament is part of the distal ankle syndesmosis.
SEE: anterior tibiofibular ligament; crural interosseous ligament

posterior tibiotalar ligament

A ligament of the ankle that connects the posteromedial portion of the talus to the posterior portion of the medial malleolus, preventing posterior displacement of the talus within the mortise, esp. when the ankle is dorsiflexed. The posterior tibiotalar ligament is categorized as part of the deltoid ligament complex of the ankle.
SEE: deltoid ligament

Poupart ligament

Inguinal ligament.

pterygomandibular ligament

The ligament between the apex of the internal pterygoid plate of the sphenoid bone and the posterior extremity of the internal oblique line of the mandible.

pubic arcuate ligaments

The ligaments connecting the pubic bones at the symphysis pubis, including anterior and superior pubic ligaments and the arcuate (inferior) ligament.

pulmonary ligament

A fold of pleura that extends from the hilus of the lung to the base of the medial surface of the lung.

rhomboid ligament of clavicle

A ligament extending from the tuberosity of the clavicle to the outer surface of the cartilage of the first rib.

Rivinus' ligament

SEE: Rivinus, August Quirinus

round ligament of femur

The ligament of the head of the femur that is attached to the anterior superior part of the fovea of the head of the femur and to the sides of the acetabular notch.

round ligament of liver

A fibrous cord extending upward from the umbilicus and enclosed in lower margin of the falciform ligament; represents obliterated left umbilical vein of the fetus.

round ligament of uterus

The pair of ligaments attached to the uterus immediately below and in front of the entrance of the fallopian tubes. Each extends laterally in the broad ligament to the pelvic wall, where it passes through the inguinal ring, terminating in the labium majora.

sacroiliac ligaments

Two ligaments (anterior and posterior) that connect sacrum and ilium.

sacrospinous ligament

The ligament extending from the spine of the ischium to the sacrum and coccyx in front of the sacrotuberous ligament.

sacrotuberous ligament

The ligament extending from the tuberosity of the ischium to the posterior superior and inferior iliac spines and to the lower part of the sacrum and coccyx.

sphenomandibular ligament

The ligament attached superiorly to the spine of the sphenoid and inferiorly to the lingula of the mandible. The sphenomandibular ligament is a key part of the temporomandibular joint, helps support the weight of the mandible when the mandibular muscles are relaxed, and also controls and guides the swing of the mandible as it moves.

spinoglenoid ligament

The ligament joining the spine of the scapula to the border of the glenoid cavity.

spiral ligament of cochlea

The thickened periosteum of the peripheral wall of the osseous cochlear canal. The basilar membrane is attached to its inner surface.

spring ligament

The interior calcaneonavicular ligament of the sole of the foot. It joins the calacaneus to the navicular.

stellate ligament

One of the anterior costovertebral ligaments.

stylohyoid ligament

A thin fibroelastic cord between the lesser cornu of the hyoid bone and the apex of the styloid process of the temporal bone.

stylomandibular ligament

A thin fibrous band of tissue extending between the styloid process of the temporal bone and the lower part of the posterior border of the ramus of the mandible. It is one of the structures that separates the parotid gland from the submandibular gland.
SYN: stylomaxillary ligament

stylomaxillary ligament

Stylomandibular ligament.

subflavous ligament

The yellowish ligament connecting the laminae of the vertebrae.

suprascapular ligament

A thin fibrous band of tissue extending from the base of the coracoid process of the scapula to the inner margin of the suprascapular notch. The suprascapular artery passes over this ligament and the suprascapular nerve passes under the ligament.

supraspinal ligament

A ligament uniting the apices of the spinous processes of the vertebrae.

suspensory ligament

A ligament suspending an organ.

suspensory ligament of axilla

The continuation of the clavipectoral fascia down to attach to the axillary fascia.

suspensory ligament of lens

The zonula ciliaris (ciliary zonule); the fibers holding the crystalline lens in position.

suspensory ligament of ovary

A ligament extending from the tubal end of the ovary laterally to the pelvic wall. It lies in the layers of the broad ligament in which the ovarian artery is found.

suspensory ligament of penis

A triangular bundle of fibrous tissue extending from the anterior surface of the symphysis pubis and adjacent structures to the penis, surrounding the penis at its root before merging with the deep fascia of the penis.

suspensory ligaments of uterus

The broad ligaments, the round ligaments, and the rectouterine folds of the uterus.

sutural ligaments

Any of the thin layers that are found in a fibrous joint between bones (e.g., the bones of the skull) and are united by sutures.

temporomandibular ligament

The thickened portion of the joint capsule that passes from the articular tubercle at the root of the zygomatic arch to attach to the subcondylar neck of the mandible.

tendinotrochanteric ligament

A ligament that forms a part of the capsule of the hip joint.

transverse crural ligament

The ligament lying on the anterior surface of the leg just above the ankle.

transverse humeral ligament

A fibrous band that bridges the bicipital groove of the humerus in connecting the lesser and greater tuberosities.

transverse ligament of atlas

A ligament passing over the odontoid process of the axis.

transverse ligament of hip joint

A ligamentous band extending across the cotyloid notch of the acetabulum.

transverse ligament of knee joint

A fibrous band extending from the anterior margin of the external semilunar fibrocartilage of the knee to the extremity of the internal semilunar fibrocartilage.

trapezoid ligament

The lateral portion of the coracoclavicular ligament.

triangular ligament

One of two ligaments (right and left) connecting posterior portions of the right and left lobes of the liver with corresponding portions of the diaphragm.

triangular ligaments of liver

Lateral ligaments of liver.

uterorectosacral ligament

One of the ligaments that arise from the sides of the cervix and pass upward and backward, passing around the rectum, to the second sacral vertebra. They are enclosed within the rectouterine folds, which demarcate the borders of the rectouterine pouch.

uterosacral ligament

SEE: Petit ligament

venous ligament of liver

A solid fibrous cord representing the obliterated ductus venosus of the fetus. It lies between the caudate and left lobes of the liver and connects the left branch of the portal vein to the inferior vena cava.

ventricular ligament of larynx

The lateral free margin of the quadrangular membrane. It is enclosed within and supports the ventricular fold.

vesicouterine ligament

The ligament that attaches the anterior aspect of the uterus to the bladder.

vestibular ligament

In the larynx, a thin fibrous band attached anteriorly to the lamina of the thyroid cartilage and posteriorly to the anterior portion of the arytenoid cartilage.

vocal ligament

The thickened free edges of the elastic cone extending from the thyroid angle to the vocal processes of arytenoid cartilages. They support the vocal folds.

xiphocostal ligament

The ligament connecting the xiphoid process to the cartilage of the eighth rib.

yellow ligament

One of the ligaments connecting the laminae of adjacent vertebrae.

Zaglas' ligament

SEE: Zaglas' ligament