(sī-kol′ŏ-jē)

[psych- + -logy]
The science dealing with mental processes, both normal and abnormal, and their effects upon behavior. There are two main approaches to the study: introspective, i.e., engaging in self-examination of one's own mental processes; and objective, studying of the minds of others.

abnormal psychology

The study of deviant behavior and the associated mental phenomena.

analytic psychology

Psychoanalysis based on the concepts of Carl Jung, de-emphasizing sexual factors in motivation and emphasizing the “collective unconscious” and “psychological types” (introvert and extrovert).

animal psychology

The study of animal behavior.

applied psychology

The application of the principles of psychology to special fields (e.g., clinical, industrial, educational, nursing, or pastoral).

clinical psychology

The branch of psychology concerned with diagnosing and treating mental disorders.

cognitive psychology

The study of the processes of reasoning and decision making.

criminal psychology

The branch of psychology concerned with the behavior and therapy of those convicted of crimes.

depth psychology

The psychology of unconscious behavior, as opposed to the psychology of conscious behavior.

dynamic psychology

Psychology of motivation; that which seeks the causes of mental phenomena.

experimental psychology

The study of mental acts by tests and experiments.

genetic psychology

The branch of psychology concerned with the inheritance of psychological characteristics.

gestalt psychology

Psychology that emphasizes the importance of the wholeness of psychological processes and behavior, rather than their components.

individual psychology

A system of psychological thinking developed by Alfred Adler in which an individual is regarded as having three life goals: physical security, sexual satisfaction, and social integration.

physiological psychology

Psychology that deals with the structure and function of the nervous system and other bodily organs and their relationship to behavior.

social psychology

The branch of psychology concerned with the study of groups and their influence on the individual's actions and mental processes.